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考研必背的底蕴语法知识点,名师手记

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考研必背的底蕴语法知识点,名师手记

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第十九讲 简单句、并列句和复合句

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意气风发。考试大纲必要

  语法知识点1

考纲要求考生能科学判定句子的种类、剖析句子结构、结合语境和句意选拔适宜的连天词语、剖断主语和从句的不易语序、安妥接纳主句和从句谓语动词的时态。

  1.as...as.。。指导的可比级:(1)“as 形容词或副词原级 as 被比较对象”结构。例句: He studies as hard as you. 他像您同意气风发学习努力。

二。命题导向

  (2)在否定句或难点句中可用 not so…as…. 例句:He can not run so/as fast as you. 他没你跑得快。

高等学园统一招考对简易句、并列句和复合句的试验首要不外乎:句子的结构、连词的取舍、从句与主句的谓语动词的时态、主语和从句的语序、一些习贯用语和独特的句式应用。

  2.only教导的倒装句型:only 状语 (或状语从句)位于句首时,句子部分倒装。 

三。复习要点

  例句: Only by diligence and honesty can one succeed in life.  唯有百折不回、正直,一人在生活中才干学有所成。 

1.简短句、并列句和复合句

  注意:但 only修饰主语时,不倒装。例句: Only that girl knew how to work out the problem.  唯有那位女人知道怎样解这道题。

① 句子体系两种分类法

  3.wish指导的虚构语气:wish 后边的从句,现代表与真情相反的动静,或表示今后不太大概完成的愿望时,其宾语从句的动词情势为: 

规行矩步句子的用项,英文的句子可分:陈说句(分明、否定)、疑问句(平日、特殊、选取、反意)、祈使句、惊叹句等多种。

  ⑴表示对未来情况的假造:从句动词用过去式或过去举行式表示,be 的千古式用were.   

依据句子的结构可分:简单句并列句和复合句三种。

  I wish I knew the answer to the question.    作者期望了然那几个主题素材的答案。(可惜不领悟。) 

轻易句唯有二个主语或并列主语和叁个谓语或并列谓语。并列句由并列连词and, but, or,so等)或根据地(;)把多少个或五个以上的简便句连在一齐构成。复合句:含有叁个或二个之上从句的语句。复合句富含:状语从句名词性从句(主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句)和定语从句等三种。

  ⑵表示对过去情况的虚构:从句动词用had 过去分词。 

② 并列句的归类

  I wish (that) I hadn’t wasted so much time.  作者后悔不应该浪费这么多时光。( 实际桃浪经浪费掉了。) 

并列句指把三个相近主要的句子连接在联合,句子之间常用and, not only…but also…, neither…nor…, then等并称连词连接。

  ⑶代表对西夏的莫明其妙意愿:谓语动词情势为“would/ should/ could/ might 动词原形”。在此种意况下,主句的主语与从句的主语无法平等,因为主句的主语所期待的从句动作能还是无法完成,决计于从句主语的情态或希望(非动作名词除此而外) 。 

代表接纳事关常用的连词有:or, either…or…, otherwise等

  I wish it would stop raining.  但愿雨能终止。 

代表转会关系常用的连词有:but, still, however, yet, while, when等。

  注意:若wish 后的宾语从句中用 would,能够表示央求,经常意味着说话人的痛楚或缺憾。

代表因果关系常用的连词有:so, for, therefore等。

  例句:I wish you would be quiet.  笔者盼望您安然一些。 

2.状语从句:

  4.it方式宾语:和it 作方式主语相仿,  我们常用it 来作格局宾语, 把真的的宾语从句放在句末, 这种情况愈加出以后带复合宾语的句子中。

(1)状语从句的归类

  例句:He has made it clear that he will not give in. 他申明她不会屈服。 

状语从句平日修饰主句的动词或任何句子,由附属连词引导,附属连词在从句中不辜负担句子成分。依据状语从句所表明的比不上含义和法力,可分为时间、地方、原因、条件、目标、结果、迁就、相比、格局等状语从句。

  5.The 比较级,the 比较级  表示“越....。。越....。。”。

(2)连接状语从句的用语

  例句:The more scared we are, the stronger the difficulty will become。我们越恐慌困难,困难就能变得越强盛。

时光状语从句:when, whenever每当……,after, before, as, as soon as, hardly/ scarcely...when..., no sooner...than.。.风流浪漫……就……,while, till, until, since, once。名词词组the first time第一回,last time最后叁回,every/each time每一趟,the next time后一次,the next day第二天, the moment, the minute, the second, the instant 少年老成……就……;副词immediately, instantly, directly等也可作连词使用。

  语法知识点2

缘由状语从句:because, since, as, now that。

  1. 宾语从句:经常难点句做宾语,引进if或whether

地方状语从句:where,wherever(无论这里)。

  例句: I want to know if he will join us in the discussion?

拗但是状语从句: no matter who/whom/what/which/how/when/where, though, although, as, even if /even though, whatever, whoever, however, wherever, whenever等。

  2. 缘由状语从句:since携带的

规格状语从句: if, unless, as/so long as(若是;只要),in case (万大器晚成); on condition that(即便), suppose, supposing, providing, provide。

  例句: Don’t eat too much sugar since it is bad for your health。

指标状语从句:in order that (为了),so that (以便)。

  3. 否定词前置倒装:scarcely...when。.

相比状语从句:(not) as/so…as…,than…, the more…the more…(越……越……) 辅导。

  例句: Scarcely had he arrived at home when it began to rain。

主意状语从句:as(正如;依照),as if/as though (好像)带领。

  4. If设想条件句

结果状语从句: so that (结果是), so/such…that (如此……以致于)。

  从句 主句
跟现在事实相反 一般过去式(be用were) would/should/might/could 动原
跟过去事实相反 had done would/should/might/could have done
跟将来事实相反 should 动原;were to do sth would/should/might/could 动原

(3)从句中的语序

  5. 宾语从句:放在介词后边,作介词的宾语。

复合句中置身事外选择陈说语序。可是,在下边包车型客车三种意况下,状语从句多使用倒装语序:

  例句:I know nothing about him except that he used to work in Shanghai。

①当连词as, though连接妥洽状语从句时,作表语的名词、形容词、动词平常置于句首,构成都部队分倒装语序。举个例子:

  6.状语从句轻易(分词作者状语):从句的主语和状语从句的主语生龙活虎致,状从轻便采纳分词作状语。例句:

Much as I have traveled, I have never seen anyone who’s as capable as John。

  (Because) being short of money, we can’t afford a TV set. =Because we are short of money, we can’t afford a TV set。

Try as she might, Carol couldn't get the door open。

  语法知识点3

Strange though it may seem, I like housework。

  1.并列句:由and, or , but连接的多个句子成为并列句。

②在so/such...that.。.结果状语从句中,so 形容词/副词或such 名词置于句首时,主句选取部分倒装语序。举例:

  2.省略句 /倒装:so/系动词/助动词/情态动词 sb 表示“后面一个意况适用于后面一个”。例句:

So successful was her business that Marie was able to set up new branches elsewhere.

  You are a student, so am I。

Such was the force of the explosion that windows were blown out。

  3.定语从句 who引导的限制性定从。例句:

③在hardly/scarcely...when..., no sooner...than.。.句式中,把hardly/scarcely/no sooner置于句首时,第贰个分句选取局地倒装语序,即把第二个分句用陈说语序。比如:

  Do you remember the girl who taught us English ?你还记得教我们德文的可怜女孩吧?

Scarcely had he sat down when there was a knock at the door。

  5.倒装:否定词seldom前移,句子倒装。例句:Seldom did he speak。

④ however与形容词、副词一同指导妥胁状语从句,句子选用陈诉语序。比如:

  4.宾语从句:whether的用法。例句:I wonder if/whether it is going to rain tomorrow。

However amusing the story is, I have to put it away and focus my attention on study this week。

  5.不定式做定语。例句:The only way to solve our problems will continue to be rejected。

⑤ 在the 比较级the 相比级句式中,只是把形容词或副词置于句首,句子依然选取陈说语序。比方:Education is about learning and the more you learn, the more equipped for life you are。

  6.原因状从:now that的用法。now that 表示 “既然”。与 since 的差别之处在于,now that 引出的必需是二个新现身的实际或意况,如若依然依然,和过去对照并从未生成,则不用 now that 引导。

(4)从句和主句中谓语动词的时态

  例句:Now that we have all the materials ready, we should begin the new task at once。既然我们把装有材料都筹算好了,大家理应及时起头那项新的干活。

在复合句中,主句和从句的谓语动词时态经常依照以下的准绳:

  7. 原因状从:for的用法。由because 指引的从句假设放在句末,且前边有逗号,则足以用并列连词 for 来代替。但假使不是注脚直接原因,而是多种状态再说预计,就只可以用 for 。例句:He is absent today, because/for he is ill. 他几这段日子没来,因为她病倒了。

①象征“同时”意义的连词as, when, as soon as, the moment, while 等连接的日子状语从句,主句和从句时态基本生机勃勃致。例如:As time passed, things seemed to get worse。

  8. 缘故状从:as 的用法。例句:The 新加坡共和国 passengers begin to decrease as other airlines spread their operating range。

② 表示“以后”意义的尺度、时间和妥胁状语从句中多用平时未来时,而主句用通常今后时,被称呼“主将从现”。例如:汤姆won’t go to sleep unless his mother tells him a story。

  9. 同位语从句:I want to know the answer to this question who will be our next president。

Once I get him a job, he’ll be fine。

  原因状从: in that的用法。例句:

③ since教导的日子状语从句多用常常过去时,而含有since从句的主句平常用现时成功时。譬喻:I haven’t met her since I left university。

  Privatization is thought to be beneficial in that it promotes competition. 合营化的优点在于能带动相互竞争。

④在句式hardly/scarcely…when…, no sooner…than…中,第叁个分句中过去形成时,第三个分句用日常过去时。比如:She had hardly sat down when the phone rang。

  10. 不定式:不定式做目标状语。例句:We get up very early to catch the first bus。

⑤ 在as if/though 指导的状语从句中,如若表示生龙活虎种与事实相反浮夸,从句多用平时过去时或过去实现时。举例:She stared at me as though I were a complete stranger。

  小说来源:跨考教育[微博]

(5)状语从句的归纳

当从句的主语与主句的主语相相同的时候,被动结构的状语从句,可粗略与主句雷同的主语和助动词,保留连词 过去分词;主动协会的状语从句,可粗略与主句相似的主语和助动词,保留连词 以往分词。举个例子:We all know that, if not carefully dealt with, the situation will get worse。

Though lacking money, his parents managed to send him to university。

(6)状语从句被用于强调组织中

状语从句作为被重申有个别用于重申组织时,生机勃勃律用It is/was …that…,不可能用when代替that。句子用陈说语序。注意:当重申Not until 时间/时间状语时,主句的谓语动词不再使用倒装语序。比方:It was not until the war was over that the soldier was able to return home。

  1. 名词性从句

(1)名词性从句分类:

依照在句中的功效,名词性从句分为:主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句种种。

(2) 名词性从句的连接词

名词性从句的连接词可分为三类:that无词义,在从句中不担当成分,临时可被略去;表示“是还是不是”用whether,独有在宾语从句中,whether可被人if替代。Whether和if在从句中不辜负担令分。假如从句缺乏主语、表语、宾语、或定语等句子元素,用三翻五次代词what, whatever, who, whoever, whom, whose, which;倘使从句缺乏状语,用三回九转副词when, where, how, why。

是因为总是代词与连接副词在句中不再是疑问句,因此从句中谓语不用难题语序。连接代词与连接副词在从句充作句子成分,而一而再词whether 和if(是或不是),在从句中不担负句子成分,只起连年作用。

(3) 名词性从句中的特殊时态

① 在偏下三种主语从句中,主语从句的谓语动词要用“should 动词原形”, should可回顾。

(1)It is 形容词 that…句型。管见所及的形容词有important, necessary, natural, funny, strange, surprising, astonishing(令人作呕的)等。

(2) It is 名词 that…句型。管见所及的名词有pity, shame, advice, suggestion, proposal(建议,指出), requirement, request, desire, order等。

(3) It is 动词的过去分词 that…句型。千千万万的动词有advise, order, propose, request, suggest, demand, require等。

②在insist(坚韧不拔), urge (督促), order(命令), command(命令), suggest(建议),advise(提议),recommend(提议,推荐), request(诉求,供给), demand(必要),require(须要,需求)等动词后的宾语从句中,谓语动词用“should 动词原形”, should可总结。

③ 在包涵advice, order, demand, proposal(提出), requirement, suggestion等名词的表语从句、同位语从句中,谓语动词用“should 动词原形”,should可粗略。

④在部分象征咋舌、意志等情感色彩的名词性从句中,谓语动词用“should 动词原形”或“should have done”,译为“竟然,居然”。举个例子:

I am surprised /shocked that you should speak in such a way。

I find it astonishing that he should be so rude to his mum。

It is strange /surprising that she should not have been invited。

I am glad that your story should have won the first prize。

  1. 定语从句

(1)定语从句的归类

定语从句分为约束性定语从句非限定性定语从句三种。约束性定语从句对先行词起修饰和界定功用,而非节制性定语从句对先行词起补充和讲阐述明效果与利益。平常节制性定语从句与先行词之间从未逗号,而非限定性定语从句与先行词之间有逗号隔断。

(2)定语从句的关系代词和涉嫌副词

定语从句平时由关系代词和涉嫌副词引导。关系代词有:who, whom, whose, which, that, as;关系副词有:when, where, why。关系代词和涉及副词必需放在从句之首,主句的先行词之后,起着接连几日来先行词和从句的效劳,同一时候在从句中又担负句子成分。

(3)关系代词和关联副词的用法:

①当先行词为人时用who 作主语,whom作宾语;②超越行词为物或任何句羊时用which,可作主语或宾语;③优先词为人、物时用that ,可作主语或宾语;④ whose用作定语,可指人或物;⑤ 关系副词when指时间,在定语从句中作时间状语;⑥where(指地方,在定语从句中作地方状语);why指原因,在定语从句中作原因状语。

(4)约束性定语从句与非约束性定语从句的区分

①限定性定语从句:从句与主句关系紧密,去掉从句,主句意义不完全,以至不合逻辑。比方:I was the only person in our office who was invited。(去掉定语从句,句意就不完全)

② 非限定性定语从句:从句与先行词关系不紧凑,去掉定从句,意思照旧平安无事。形式上用逗号隔离,不可能that用教导。举例:His movie won several awards at the film festival, which was beyond his wildest dream. (去掉定语从句,主句的情致仍完整)

(5)使用定语从句时需注意的多少个难点

①用that而不用 which的事态:先行词为不定代词all, anything, nothing, much…;先行词有最高等修饰,有序数词修饰;先行词有only, very, any等词修饰;先行词既有人又有物时。举个例子:There is nothing that can prevent him from doing it。

The first place that they visited in Guilin was Lijing。

This is the best coffee maker that I have ever been made。

Mr Smith is the only foreigner teacher that he knows。

② 用which而不用 that的景色:指导非约束性定语从句;指代整个主句的情致;用于介词 的前面 关系代词。比如:Chan’s restaurant on Baker Street, which used to be poorly run, is now a successful business. For many cities in the world, there is no room to spread our further, of which New York is an example。

③ 关系代词as的用法

a. 当现行反革命词为 the same 名词,such 名词时,要用关系代词as引导定语从句。比如:

I want to buy the same shirt as yours。

Such machines as are used in our workshop are made in Germany。

b. as可取代主句的剧情,指引的非限定性定语从句既可放在主句在此之前,也可放在主句之后。常用来下列句型:as is known to all, as is said, as is reported, as is announced, as we all know, as I expect 等。举个例子: He got the first place again in this mid-term examination, as we expected。

c. as 带领非节制性定语从句时与which的分别

当主句和从句语义意气风发致时,用as指导;反之,用which来指引迷津非约束性定语从句;当非约束订语从句为否定意义时,常用which带领。举例:

He made a long speech, as we expected。

He made a long speech, which was unexpected。

④关系代词在从句中作主语时,从句的谓语动词单数如故用复数应由先行词决定。举个例子:

The man who lives downstairs makes it a rule to run in the park in the morning。

⑤ 辅导定语从句的关联副词一时能够用“介词 which”来代替。比方:

October 1, 1949 was the day on which (= when) the new China was founded。

⑥在”介词 关系代词”结构中,关系代词只可以用which和whom,且无法大概;要是介词在句末,关系代词可用which, that, whom, 口语中也可用who,且可总结。举例:

The man (whom/ who/ that) you were talking about is proves to be friendly。

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